SRAM Controller Technical Specification


This document specifies the functionality of the SRAM memory controller. The SRAM controller is a module that is a peripheral on the chip interconnect bus, and thus follows the Comportability Specification.

The SRAM controller contains the SRAM data and address scrambling device and provides CSRs for requesting the scrambling keys and triggering the hardware initialization feature.


  • Lightweight scrambling mechanism based on the PRINCE prince cipher.
  • Key request logic for the lightweight memory and address scrambling device.
  • Alert sender and checking logic for detecting bus integrity failures.
  • LFSR-based memory initialization feature.
  • Access controls to allow / disallow code execution from SRAM.
  • Security hardening when integrity error has been detected.

Theory of Operations

Block Diagram

SRAM Controller Block Diagram

As shown in the block diagram above, the SRAM controller contains a TL-UL adapter, an initialization LFSR, the CSR node, key request logic and an instance of prim_ram_1p_scr that implements the actual scrambling mechanism.

The SRAM controller supports the system-wide end-to-end bus integrity scheme and thus stores the data integrity bits alongside each data word in the memory. I.e., this means that both the 32 data bits and 7 integrity bits are passed through the scrambling device.

Sub-word write operations therefore perform a read-modify-write operation in order to ensure consistency of the integrity bits. Hence, the throughput of sub-word write operations is three times lower than for full-word write operations. Note however that the throughput of read operations is the same for full- and sub-word read operations.

The scrambling mechanism is always enabled and the sram_ctrl provides the scrambling device with a predefined scrambling key and nonce when it comes out of reset. It is the task of SW to request an updated scrambling key and nonce via the CSRs as described in the Programmer’s Guide below.

For SW convenience, the SRAM controller also provides an LFSR-based memory initialization feature that can overwrite the entire memory with pseudorandom data. Similarly to the scrambling key, it is the task of of SW to request memory initialization via the CSRs as described in the Programmer’s Guide below.

Note that TL-UL accesses to the memory that occur while a key request or hardware initialization is pending will be blocked until the request has completed.

The individual mechanisms are explained in more detail in the subsections below.

Hardware Interfaces


The following table lists the instantiation parameters of the SRAM controller.

Parameter Default Top Earlgrey Description
AlertAsyncOn 1’b1 1’b1
InstrExec 1 1 Enables the execute from SRAM feature.
MemSizeRam 4096 (multiple values) Number of 32bit words in the SRAM (can be overridden by topgen).
RndCnstSramKey (see RTL) (see RTL) Compile-time random default constant for scrambling key.
RndCnstSramNonce (see RTL) (see RTL) Compile-time random default constant for scrambling nonce.
RndCnstLfsrSeed (see RTL) (see RTL) Compile-time random default constant for LFSR seed.
RndCnstLfsrPerm (see RTL) (see RTL) Compile-time random default constant for LFSR permutation.


Referring to the Comportable guideline for peripheral device functionality, the module sram_ctrl has the following hardware interfaces defined.

Primary Clock: clk_i

Other Clocks: clk_otp_i

Bus Device Interfaces (TL-UL): regs_tl, ram_tl

Bus Host Interfaces (TL-UL): none

Peripheral Pins for Chip IO: none

Inter-Module Signals: Reference

Inter-Module Signals
Port Name Package::Struct Type Act Width Description
sram_otp_key otp_ctrl_pkg::sram_otp_key req_rsp req 1
cfg prim_ram_1p_pkg::ram_1p_cfg uni rcv 1
lc_escalate_en lc_ctrl_pkg::lc_tx uni rcv 1
lc_hw_debug_en lc_ctrl_pkg::lc_tx uni rcv 1
otp_en_sram_ifetch prim_mubi_pkg::mubi8 uni rcv 1
regs_tl tlul_pkg::tl req_rsp rsp 1
ram_tl tlul_pkg::tl req_rsp rsp 1

Interrupts: none

Security Alerts:

Alert NameDescription

This fatal alert is triggered when a fatal TL-UL bus integrity fault is detected, or if the initialization mechanism has reached an invalid state.

Security Countermeasures:

Countermeasure IDDescription

End-to-end bus integrity scheme.


The SRAM control register is protected by a REGWEN.


The SRAM execution enable register is protected by a REGWEN.


The SRAM execution enable register is multibit encoded.


The SRAM execution enable signal coming from OTP is multibit encoded.


The life cycle escalation enable signal is multibit encoded.


The life cycle hardware debug enable signal is multibit encoded.


End-to-end data/memory integrity scheme.


Data is scrambled with a keyed reduced-round PRINCE cipher in CTR mode.


Address is scrambled with a keyed lightweight permutation/diffusion function.


Prevent code execution from SRAM in non-test lifecycle states.


Scrambling key and nonce are reset to a fixed value upon escalation, and bus transactions going to the memory will be blocked.


Scrambling key and nonce are reset to a fixed value upon local escalation due to bus integrity or counter errors, and bus transactions going to the memory will be blocked.


The initialization counter is duplicated.


The scrambling key is sideloaded from OTP and thus unreadable by SW.


The TL-UL response FIFO pointers are implemented with duplicate counters.

The table below lists other SRAM controller signals.

Signal Direction Type Description
lc_hw_debug_en_i input lc_ctrl_pkg::lc_tx_t Multibit life cycle hardware debug enable signal coming from life cycle controller, asserted when the hardware debug mechanisms are enabled in the system.
lc_escalate_en_i input lc_ctrl_pkg::lc_tx_t Multibit life cycle escalation enable signal coming from life cycle controller, asserted if an escalation has occurred.
sram_otp_key_o output otp_ctrl_pkg::sram_otp_key_req_t Key derivation request going to the key derivation interface of the OTP controller.
sram_otp_key_i input otp_ctrl_pkg::sram_otp_key_rsp_t Ephemeral scrambling key coming back from the key derivation interface of the OTP controller.
otp_en_sram_ifetch_i input otp_ctrl_pkg::mubi8_t Multibit value coming from the OTP HW_CFG partition (EN_SRAM_IFETCH), set to kMuBi8True in order to enable the EXEC CSR.
cfg_i input logic [CfgWidth-1:0] Attributes for physical memory macro.

Interfaces to OTP and the SRAM Scrambling Primitive

The interface to the key derivation interface inside the OTP controller follows a simple req / ack protocol, where the SRAM controller first requests an updated ephemeral key by asserting the sram_otp_key_i.req. The OTP controller then fetches entropy from CSRNG and derives an ephemeral key using the SRAM_DATA_KEY_SEED and the PRESENT scrambling data path as described in the OTP controller spec. Finally, the OTP controller returns a fresh ephemeral key via the response channels (sram_otp_key_o[*], otbn_otp_key_o), which complete the req / ack handshake. The key and nonce are made available to the scrambling primitive in the subsequent cycle. The wave diagram below illustrates this process.

If the key seeds have not yet been provisioned in OTP, the keys are derived from all-zero constants, and the *.seed_valid signal will be set to 0 in the response. It should be noted that this mechanism requires the CSRNG and entropy distribution network to be operational, and a key derivation request will block if they are not.

Note that the req/ack protocol runs on clk_otp_i. The SRAM controller synchronizes the data over via a req/ack handshake primitive primitive as shown below.

OTP Key Req Ack

Note that the key and nonce output signals on the OTP controller side are guaranteed to remain stable for at least 62 OTP clock cycles after the ack signal is pulsed high, because the derivation of a 64bit half-key takes at least two passes through the 31-cycle PRESENT primitive. Hence, if the SRAM controller clock clk_i is faster or in the same order of magnitude as clk_otp_i, the data can be directly sampled upon assertion of src_ack_o. If the SRAM controller runs on a significantly slower clock than OTP, an additional register (as indicated with dashed grey lines in the figure) has to be added.

Global and Local Escalation

If lc_escalate_en_i is set to any different value than lc_ctrl_pkg::Off, the current scrambling keys are discarded and reset to RndCnstSramKey and RndCnstSramNonce in the subsequent cycle. Any subsequent memory request to prim_ram_1p_scr will then be blocked as well. This mechanism is part of the life cycle state scrapping and secret wiping countermeasure triggered by the alert handler (global escalation).

Note that if any local bus integrity or counter errors are detected, the SRAM controller will locally escalate without assertion of lc_escalate_en_i. The behavior of local escalation is identical to global escalation via lc_escalate_en_i.

Scrambling Primitive

As explained in prim_ram_1p_scr the scrambling mechanism employs a reduced-round PRINCE block cipher in CTR mode to scramble the data. Since plain CTR mode does not diffuse the data bits due to the bitwise XOR, the scheme is augmented by passing each word through a shallow substitution-permutation (S&P) network implemented with the prim_subst_perm primitive. The S&P network employed is similar to the one employed in PRESENT and is explained in more detail here.

Another CTR mode augmentation that is aimed at breaking the linear address space is SRAM address scrambling. The same S&P network construction that is used for intra-word diffusion is leveraged to non-linearly remap the SRAM address as shown in the block diagram above.

Integrity Error Handling

When an integrity error is encountered, the sram_ctrl will latch the integrity error send out a fatal_bus_integ_error until the next reset (the generation of the integrity error is determined by system integration). In addition, the latched error condition is fed into the prim_ram_1p_scr primitive via a dedicated input, causing the scrambling primitive to do the following:

  • Reverse the nonce used during the address and CTR scrambling.
  • Disallow any transaction (read or write) on the actual memory macro.

This behavior, combined with other top level defenses, form a multi-layered defense when integrity errors are seen in the system.

LFSR Initialization Feature

Since the scrambling device uses a block cipher in CTR mode, it is undesirable to initialize the memory with all-zeros from a security perspective, as that would reveal the XOR keystream. To this end, the sram_ctrl contains an LFSR-based initialization mechanism that overwrites the the entire memory with pseudorandom data.

Initialization can be triggered via the CTRL.INIT CSR, and once triggered, the LFSR is first re-seeded with the nonce that has been fetched together with the scrambling key. Then, the memory is initialized with pseudorandom data pulled from the LFSR. For each pseudorandom 32bit word, the initialization mechanism computes the corresponding integrity bits and writes both the data and integrity bits (39bit total) through the scrambling device using the most recently obtained scrambling key.

If SW triggers the scrambling key update and LFSR initialization at the same time (i.e., with the same CSR write operation), the LFSR initialization will be stalled until an updated scrambling key has been obtained.

There is no limit on how often the initialization feature can be called, and hence it can also be used as a cheap SRAM wiping mechanism at runtime. Note however that the PRNG sequence does not have strong security guarantees, since it is produced using an LFSR.

Code Execution from SRAM

The SRAM controller contains an access control mechanism for filtering instruction fetches from the processor. As illustrated below, an OTP switch EN_SRAM_IFETCH (see OTP memory map) allows to either tie code execution from SRAM to the life cycle state via the HW_DEBUG_EN function (see life cycle docs), or it can be enabled / disabled via the EXEC CSR.

SRAM Code Execution

The different configuration options are listed in the table below:

EN_SRAM_IFETCH (OTP) HW_DEBUG_EN (Life Cycle) EXEC CSR Execution Enabled
== kMultiBitBool8True - == kMultiBitBool4True Yes
== kMultiBitBool8True - != kMultiBitBool4True No
!= kMultiBitBool8True ON - Yes
!= kMultiBitBool8True OFF - No

Note that the execute from SRAM feature may only be enabled on certain SRAM controller instances in the top-level design. If the feature is turned off via the InstrExec parameter, the execute from SRAM feature is permanently disabled, and the status of the OTP switch, the life cycle state and the value of the EXEC register are irrelevant.

As an example, the top_earlgrey design only enables this feature on the main SRAM, and permanently disables it on the retention SRAM.

Read and Write Sequencing

For timing reasons, the scrambling primitive instantiates a register halfway in the PRINCE block cipher. This means that the keystream block becomes available in the second request cycle, which naturally aligns with read operations since the SRAM memory latency is 1 clock cycle.

However, write operations have to be deferred by 1 cycle in order to be able to reuse the same PRINCE primitive. This can lead to read/write conflicts when a write operation is immediately followed by a read operation, and we solve that issue by introducing two write data holding registers (highlighted with green and orange in the block diagram above). The register highlighted with green is the unscrambled data holding register, which is used for forwarding unwritten write data in case the conflicting read operation goes to the same address as the pending write operation. The register highlighted with orange is the scrambled data holding register, which holds the scrambled data until the conflicting read operation(s) have completed.

Note that this arrangement still allows full read/write throughput as illustrated in the alternating R/W sequence below.

SRAM Controller Sequencing

However, due to the end-to-end bus integrity scheme, sub-word write accesses currently require a read-modify-write operation in order to recompute the integrity bits for the entire word, as illustrated in the diagram below.

SRAM Controller Sub-word Write

Sub-word write accesses are therefore 3x slower than full-word write accesses. Read accesses however always take 1 cycle, no matter whether the access is a full-word or sub-word read operation.

Note that this has been implemented in this way to not overly complicate the design, and since it is assumed that sub-word write operations happen relatively infrequently. For full write throughput, a more elaborate write buffering scheme would be required.

Programmer’s Guide


The memory inside the SRAM controller can be used right away after a system reset. However, since the scrambling key defaults to a predefined value, it is recommended that SW performs the following initialization steps as early in the boot process as possible.

  1. Request an updated ephemeral scrambling key from OTP by writing 0x1 to CTRL.RENEW_SCR_KEY. SW should spin on STATUS.SCR_KEY_VALID to wait until the new key has been obtained. While this is not strictly needed since memory accesses to the SRAM will be stalled until the updated key has been obtained, the PC value upon a watchdog crash will be more informative when using a spin wait.

  2. (optional) Initialize the memory with pseudo random data by writing 0x1 to CTRL.INIT SW should spin on STATUS.INIT_DONE to wait until the memory has been initialized. While this is not strictly needed since memory accesses to the SRAM will be stalled until the initialization is done, the PC value upon a watchdog crash will be more informative when using a spin wait.

  3. (optional) Check the STATUS.SCR_KEY_SEED_VALID bit:

    • In case the scrambling key seeds have been fully provisioned to OTP, this bit should be set to 0x1. A value of 0x0 indicates that the OTP could be malfunctioning or has been tampered with.
    • If the scrambling seeds have not yet been provisioned to OTP, this bit is set to 0x0. The scrambling key will in that case still be ephemeral, but the key seed mixed in as part of the key derivation process will be set to a predefined netlist constant.
  4. (optional) Lock down write access to CTRL by writing to CTRL_REGWEN if future key renewals and initializations should be disallowed until the next system reset.

Note that before (re-)requesting an updated SRAM key it is imperative to make sure that:

  • The memory contents are not needed anymore. Requesting a key implicitly wipes all data in the SRAM.
  • The CSRNG and the entropy distribution network have been initialized. The key derivation mechanism in OTP needs to request a chunk of fresh entropy, and that request will block until the entropy distribution network responds.

It should also be noted that data and address scrambling is never entirely disabled - even when the default scrambling key is used.

Device Interface Functions (DIFs)

To use this DIF, include the following C header:

#include "sw/device/lib/dif/dif_sram_ctrl.h"

This header provides the following device interface functions:

Register Table

Registers visible under device interface regs

Name Offset Length Description
sram_ctrl.ALERT_TEST 0x0 4

Alert Test Register

sram_ctrl.STATUS 0x4 4

SRAM status register.

sram_ctrl.EXEC_REGWEN 0x8 4

Lock register for execution enable register.

sram_ctrl.EXEC 0xc 4

Sram execution enable.

sram_ctrl.CTRL_REGWEN 0x10 4

Lock register for control register.

sram_ctrl.CTRL 0x14 4

SRAM ctrl register.

sram_ctrl.ALERT_TEST @ 0x0

Alert Test Register

Reset default = 0x0, mask 0x1

Write 1 to trigger one alert event of this kind.

sram_ctrl.STATUS @ 0x4

SRAM status register.

Reset default = 0x0, mask 0x3f

This bit is set to 1 if a fatal bus integrity fault is detected. This error triggers a fatal_error alert. This condition is terminal.


This bit is set to 1 if a the initialization counter has reached an invalid state. This error triggers a fatal_error alert. This condition is terminal.


Set to 1 if the sram controller has received an escalate request. If this is set to 1, the scrambling keys have been reset to the default values and all subsequent memory requests will be blocked. This condition is terminal.


Set to 1 if a new scrambling key has been successfully obtained from OTP. Note that if this is set to 0, the SRAM contents are still scrambled, but a default all-zero key and nonce are used to do so.


Set to 1 if the scrambling key has been derived from a valid key seed in OTP. If STATUS.SCR_KEY_VALID is set to 1, STATUS.SCR_KEY_SEED_VALID should be 1 except for cases where the scrambling key seeds have not yet been provisioned to OTP. In such a case, the scrambling key is still ephemeral (i.e., it is derived using entropy from CSRNG), but a default all-zero value is used as the key seed.


Set to 1 if the hardware initialization triggered via CTRL.INIT has completed.

sram_ctrl.EXEC_REGWEN @ 0x8

Lock register for execution enable register.

Reset default = 0x1, mask 0x1

When cleared to zero, EXEC can not be written anymore.

sram_ctrl.EXEC @ 0xc

Sram execution enable.

Reset default = 0x9, mask 0xf
Register enable = EXEC_REGWEN

Write kMultiBitBool4True to this field to enable execution from SRAM. Note that this register only takes effect if the EN_SRAM_IFETCH switch in the OTP HW_CFG partition is set to kMultiBitBool8True. Otherwise execution from SRAM cannot be enabled via this register.

sram_ctrl.CTRL_REGWEN @ 0x10

Lock register for control register.

Reset default = 0x1, mask 0x1

When cleared to zero, CTRL can not be written anymore.

sram_ctrl.CTRL @ 0x14

SRAM ctrl register.

Reset default = 0x0, mask 0x3
Register enable = CTRL_REGWEN

Write 1 to request a new scrambling key from OTP. After writing to this register, SRAM transactions will be blocked until STATUS.SCR_KEY_VALID has been set to 1. If STATUS.SCR_KEY_VALID was already 1 before triggering a key renewal, hardware will automatically clear that status bit such that software can poll its status. Note that requesting a new scrambling key takes ~200 OTP cycles, which translates to ~800 CPU cycles (OTP runs at 24MHz, CPU runs at 100MHz). Note that writing 1 to this register while a key request is pending has no effect.


Write 1 to request memory init. The init mechanism uses an LFSR that is seeded with a part of the nonce supplied when requesting a scrambling key. Once seeded, the memory is initialized with pseudo-random data pulled from the LFSR. Note that !!RENEW_SCR_KEY takes priority when writing 1 to both !!RENEW_SCR_KEY and !!INIT with the same write transaction. This means that the key request will complete first, followed by SRAM initialization.

Registers visible under device interface ram

This interface does not expose any registers.